~ SAVE AMPHIBIANS OF HIMALAYAS AWARENESS PROGRAM! ~

Some good news from the Himalayas of Uttarakhand, India! Our lab member Vishal Kumar Prasad and his team and colleagues organised a major awareness and education program: ‘Saving Amphibians of Nainital Himalaya’ on 2nd April 2022 for school students (age under 15) in Aarohi Peora, Nainital district. With the decline in covid-19 cases locally and further relaxation in restrictions, they were allowed to organise this program in villages.

Vishal Kumar Prasad explaining about amphibian conservation to students in Nainital

The program included an interactive session on the research of endemic amphibians. Vishal presented his research work on the frogs and toads, natural history, importance, and threats the amphibians are facing in the Himalayan landscape. The team also organised some activities like memory games and the most exclusive the ‘FROG RACE!’ The winning team was awarded with prizes and certificates. All students enjoyed refreshments after a tiring ‘Frog Race’. Good teamwork was displayed by students in these group activities. This shows children are the hope for future conservation.

The ‘Frog Race’

Interestingly, there was a pre-assessment of the existing knowledge of children about amphibians by providing them a questionnaire (10 questions). This activity will be monitored after imparting further knowledge to the children to see how their perspective has changed over a period of time.  

Participants of the awareness and education program: ‘Saving Amphibians of Nainital Himalaya’

Awareness program about amphibian conservation in Nainital district

Participants of the awareness program on the 18th of March 2022

Vishal and his team organised on the 18th of March 2022 an awareness program on amphibians conservation for the children of Simayal village in the Nainital district in India. It was a two hours long event that included a short talk, a poster competition, and refreshments for about 20 children. Due to exams period, it’s difficult to conduct such event in a school and initially they didn’t expect much from the village children in terms of involvement and enthusiasm for toads and frogs, but surprisingly children were really excited about the amphibian stories.

Short talk on amphibian conservation

They tried to ignite their young minds with frog picture and videos and they all enjoyed the session and learned about amphibians that are found in their vicinity. Vishal hopes that this will bring some interest in the local anuran species. The children made some really cool posters and Mansi Raikwal (ninths grade) made the best poster with frog eggs, tadpole and adult frogs with a message about saving amphibians of Nainital district.

Best poster of the competition on amphibian conservation!

Новый детальный анализ филогеографии и таксономии настоящих жаб рода Bufo в Восточной Палеарктике

Широкое распространение настоящих жаб (род Bufo) в Восточной Палеарктике скрывало за собой большое скрытое разнообразие, неопределенность происхождения видовых комплексов и нечеткость таксономических границ. Для того чтобы реконструировать историческую биогеографию азиатских представителей этого рода и решить таксономические проблемы в таком сложном комплексе видов, как B. gargarizans, мы использовали филогеографические методы и филогенетические подходы с использованием анализа многолокусных генетических фрагментов. Было установлено, что комбинированные эффекты, связанные с особенностями расселения и выживанием в разных ледниковых рефугиумах привели к глубокому расхождению некоторых популяций внутри этого комплекса. Моделирование ареалов видов подтвердило наши выводы о том, что  самая северная группа популяций в этом комплексе имеет независимую эволюционную историю. Модели расселения видов и анализ путей их постледниковых миграций показали сильную разницу в экологических требованиях между популяциями, расположенными к востоку и западу от Желтого моря, что также подтверждает расхождение между этими кладами.

Resolution of the diversifications of bufonids in the Holarctic and the Eastern Palearctic.

Определив таксономические границы комплекса B. gargarizans, мы восстановили для северо-восточных популяций видовое название Bufo sachalinensis. Таким образом, мы показали, что в Китае проживает не один, а два вида. Кроме того, мы обращаем внимание на то, что на Корейском полуострове и Российском Дальнем Востоке встречается только B. sachalinensis, который может быть разделён на два подвида: B. sachalinensis sachalinensis в России и B. sachalinensis cf. sachalinensis на юге Кореи (этот подвид еще нуждается в описании). Это важно учитывать при планировании природоохранной деятельности для того, чтобы правильно охранять эти подвиды.

Bufo sachalinensis

Более подробную информацию об этой научной публикации можно получить на веб-сайте eLifeScience https://elifesciences.org/articles/70494.

Dated phylogeny and biogeography patterns of Bufo in the Eastern Palearctic.

동부 구북구 전역의 두꺼비속(Bufo)의 계통학 및 분류학에 대한 새로운 해결책

동부 구북구에 있는 두꺼비과(Bufo 속)는 지리적으로 광범위하게 분포하고 있기 때문에, 그 다양성을 알기 어렵고 종의 기원 또한 불확실하며, 분류학적인 경계도 불분명하다. 우리는 아시아 두꺼비과의 역사적 생물 지리를 재구성하고, 동아시아의 B. gargarizans의 사례 등에서 찾아볼 수 있는 종 복합체 분류 문제를 해결하기 위해 B. gargarizans 복합체의 전 지리적 범위에서 433 개체를 샘플링했다.

Resolution of the diversifications of bufonids in the Holarctic and the Eastern Palearctic.

예측 계통지리학 툴과 다중 유전자좌 단편을 사용한 고급 분류법을 통합하여 분석한 결과, 긴 분산 거리와 빙하기 레퓨지아의 효과가 결합되어 B. gargarizans 복합체에 있는 깊은 분기(divergence)를 초래했다는 것을 밝혀냈다. 종 구분 모델링 결과, 종 복합체의 최북단 개체군이 독립적으로 진화적 계통을 이루고 있음을 보여준다. 종 분포 모델과 이주 패턴은 황해의 동쪽과 서쪽 개체군의 생태학적 필요 조건에서 차이가 있으며, 광범위하게 분포되어 있는 B. gargarizans복합체로부터 황해의 동쪽 Bufo 계통군이 분리되어 있다는 사실을 뒷받침해준다.

Bufo sachalinensis

B. gargarizans 복합체의 분류학적 경계를 재정비하기 위해 우리는 Bufo sachalinensis이라는 종명을 다시 부활시켰고, 중국에 있는 두 두꺼비 종이 헷갈리지 않도록 동북 두꺼비 (东北蟾蜍; Dōng Běi Chán Chú; 동베찬추) 라는 중국 이름을 부여했다. 또, 우리는 B. sachalinensis만이 한반도와 러시아에서 발생한다는 점을 강조하며, 이 종을 러시아의 B. sachalinensis sachalinensis와 한반도의 남부B. sachalinensis cf. sachalinensis (아직 아종에 대한 기술이 필요하다) 두 개의 보전 단위로 나누었다. 우리는 이러한 아종을 보전하기 위해 별도의 보전 관리 체계를 만들 것을 권장한다.

이 논문에 대한 자세한 내용은 eLifeScience https://elifesciences.org/articles/70494에서 확인할 수 있다.

Dated phylogeny and biogeography patterns of Bufo in the Eastern Palearctic.

古北界东部蟾蜍属Bufo系统地理学与分类学新见解

古北界东部蟾蜍属Bufo的地理分布广泛,导致该类群的研究较为困难,其隐存多样性、物种复合体的起源与物种界限尚不明确。研究基于包含中华蟾蜍B. gargarizans复合体在内的全部分布区下433个蟾蜍属个体的广泛样品基础,重构了亚洲蟾蜍属的历史生物地理演化过程,并解决了东亚地区部分物种复合体的系统关系。

Resolution of the diversifications of bufonids in the Holarctic and the Eastern Palearctic.

研究基于多位点基因片段数据,整合了预测系统地理学方法与整合分类学手段,发现远距离扩散与冰川避难所的共同影响是导致中华蟾蜍B. gargarizans复合体内部高度分化水平的重要因素。物种界定模型支持中华蟾蜍复合体中最北端种群的独立支系的种级水平;并且物种分布模型和迁徙格局表明黄海东西部种群间的生态位存在差异,支持黄海以东的蟾蜍属支系独立于其他地区分布的中华蟾蜍B. gargarizans

Bufo sachalinensis

研究自中华蟾蜍B. gargarizans次定同物异名中恢复了Bufo sachalinensis Nikolskii, 1905的有效性,称东北蟾蜍Bufo sachalinensis,解决了中华蟾蜍复合体的分类学问题。此外,我们强调朝鲜半岛和俄罗斯仅分布有东北蟾蜍,其分为两个保护单位:俄罗斯的东北蟾蜍指名亚种B. sachalinensis sachalinensis与韩国南部的东北蟾蜍指名亚种参考亚种B. sachalinensis cf. sachalinensis(亚种有待进一步描述);我们建议将此二者划分为独立的保护管理单元。

论文详情请见eLifeScience期刊网站:https://elifesciences.org/articles/70494

Dated phylogeny and biogeography patterns of Bufo in the Eastern Palearctic.